The paper focuses on a key uniqueness of the simultaneous generation of social and business value - across science, technology and society - involving academics, businesses, policy makers, innovation intermediaries, NGOs and citizens that share and integrate assets in developing solutions to address economic and societal challenges.
By contrasting with a broad literature using the term ‘co-creation’ to denote close working relationship between actors, the paper outlines a conceptual framework explaining how the diversity of agents involved, their motivations and goals, and incentive structures in which they operate impact on science-based co-creation. This multidimensional perspective is discussed with regard to the scope of innovation, reach and types of values that are generated, and the distinctive features to be considered when both social and business value are at the core of collaboration.
Policy implications to support science-based co-creation are discussed with regard to the rationale for public interventions and the critical dimensions of policy implementation and assessment. It highlights that policy design aiming at supporting societal challenges through co-creation should address mechanisms to integrate tangible and intangible inputs, define suitable operational models and enhance specific capabilities and practices.
Knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) significantly contribute to the economic growth and competitive advantage of emerging markets, including Silk Road countries. KIBS are not only intermediaries that transfer knowledge through the economy but are also innovators themselves. This paper aims to explore how major innovation drivers influence the implementation of innovation in KIBS. Using a sample of 519 KIBS enterprises from Russia, the results show that human capital increases the implementation of technological innovation, while the link between standardisation and technological innovations is nonlinear (an inverted U-shaped). In addition, the multiregional branch network promotes the implementation of all types of innovation, while advertising investments enhance the implementation of technological and marketing ones. These results help to provide some practical suggestions for both innovation managers and policy-makers.
This article explores the utilization of public policies aimed at supporting industrial innovation, and, in particular, enterprises involved in industry-science cooperation. The aim is to investigate whether firms cooperating with universities or R&D organisations are more likely to be supported by the state and demonstrate higher innovation performance. The empirical analysis is based upon the results of a 2018 specialised survey on innovation-active high-tech and medium high-tech manufacturing enterprises in Russia and relies on the concept of ‘additionality’. Although the study results indicate that enterprises interacting with R&D performing organisations are more likely to be publicly supported, the recipients claim that the provided support rarely causes significant changes in their performance. Cooperating with R&D organisations and universities appears associated with mainly a general boost in the competitiveness of the enterprise. The paper provides evidence to suggest that support allocation in Russia is following a ‘picking-the-winner’ strategy. Combined with possible crowding-out effects, such a strategy may prove to be counterproductive for a country with a less well developed national innovation system.
The “policy mix” concept has gained popularity among science, technology and innovation policy communities over the past two decades in a context of growing policy complexity and need for policy evidence. Pressing societal challenges are also prompting governments to rethink policy making in order to better align public intervention across policy domains and leverage the transformative potential of system innovations. Governments faced multiple obstacles in implementing a policy mix approach in policy making and evaluation. Based on a comparative analysis of international STI policy repositories, a conceptual framework is proposed, as well as structuring principles and operational guidelines for mapping the composition of a policy mix, identifying interactions among components and translating the mapping into measurement. In that view, a range of new policy mix metrics is introduced. Finally, the discussion focuses on the need for moving towards a new data management paradigm and enlarging the measurement mix.
Purpose – Knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) firms focus on applying their expert knowledge to help solve the business problems of their clients: these clients confronted major new problems due to the COVID-19 pandemic and policy measures such as social distancing and travel restrictions, designed to reduce the rapid spread of the illness. Many KIBS were reliant upon extensive contact with clients, and within teams working on projects; they found their practices disrupted. This study aims to examine how KIBS are evolving to cope with both the sets of changes: those in their own operations, and those involving the emerging business problems of clients. Design/methodology/approach – The main data sources are material contained in websites of a sample of leading firms in a range of KIBS sectors, and in media reports and other documentation of efforts to confront the pandemic. Findings – The results indicate considerable efforts in KIBS to address emerging client problems, as well as to adapt their own practices. Their substantial role in confronting the pandemic and associated business difficulties has implications for future crises. KIBS are likely to be important players in shaping responses not only to future pandemics but also to the looming climate crisis. Originality/value – The study demonstrates the growing role of KIBS and their ‘‘second knowledge infrastructure’’ in modern economies, exemplified by their role in the context of an emerging crisis
The paper presents the preliminary results of a research project on the international mobility of young Russian researchers. This study is focused on the impact of education or work experience abroad on their future scientific careers, particularly their publication activity. The case study of the one large Russian university was examined: a unique for Russia database combining both biographical data (information from CV published openly) and publication activity indicators (data from Scopus) of employees of this university was collected. A positive relationship between the international mobility and scientific productivity of scientists was revealed. Those involved in international mobility not only publish more scientific articles on average but their papers are published in journals of higher level and are cited more often. We also found some differences in the choice of topics and collaboration behavior between mobile and non-mobile scientists.
Despite the considerable increase in studies on international joint ventures (IJVs) and family business, the two research streams have yet to be systemically integrated. Family firms have unique characteristics that affect their involvement in IJVs differently from their non-family counterparts. Indeed, family firms face a paradox entailing a lower willingness to form IJVs, but a higher ability to govern them. Drawing on three distinct components of strategic agility (i.e., strategic sensitivity, leadership unity, and resource fluidity), we develop a theoretical framework that unravels this paradox. Specifically, we argue that strong emotional attachment reduces family firms' strategic sensitivity, creating a motivational gap with respect to forming IJVs. On the other hand, when family firms overcome this gap by making full use of their board of directors, they have higher levels of leadership unity and resource fluidity. These dimensions lead to a greater ability to govern the complexities of the relationship, hence reducing opportunistic hazards, and significantly increasing the odds of the long-term success of IJVs. We develop propositions for empirical studies, and offer implications and directions for future research.
Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS) are problem-solvers for other organizations. The coronacrisis affects KIBS directly, but also means that their clients are confronting new problems. How are KIBS addressing these two sets of challenges? This paper draws on material available in the trade and industry press, on official reports and statistics, and the early academic studies addressing these themes. We find that KIBS have been active (alongside other organizations) in providing a substantial range of services aimed at helping their clients (and others) deal with various contingencies thrown up by the crisis. Not least among these is the need to conform to shifting regulatory frameworks, and requirements for longer-term resilience. KIBS themselves have had to adapt their working practices considerably, to reduce face-to-face interaction with clients and within teams collaborating on projects. Adaptation is easier for those whose tasks that are relatively standardized and codified, and it remains to be seen how far a shift to such activities - and away from the traditional office-based venues of activity - is retained as firms recover from the crisis. KIBS are liable to play an important role in this recovery from the crisis, and policymakers can mobilize their services. Some KIBS are liable to be critical for rendering economies more resilient in the face of future pandemics and we argue that these firms are also important for confronting the mounting climate crisis.
Generally, there is a common sense to consider knowledge sharing and creation as two separate processes but a new matter emerges when those processes are intertwining. In this vein, this research aims to discuss on the lens of the open innovation (OI) model how such intertwining generates digital platform-based ecosystem.
Purpose – This paper aims to study the relationship between the knowledge exchanged during client interactions and innovation in knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) enterprises. It adapts the concept of absorptive capacity, i.e. the ability of the firm to successfully deal with external knowledge, to the case of client knowledge being absorbed with the support of information and communication technologies and explores whether its three main dimensions (acquisition, assimilation and application of client knowledge) are significant enablers of KIBS’ innovation propensity. Design/methodology/approach – An empirical analysis is based on a dataset of 417 Russian KIBS companies collected in 2019 following the recommendations suggested in the new edition of Oslo Manual. To examine the relationship between the three-client knowledge absorptive capacity dimensions and implementation of different types of innovation by KIBS, the study applies linear ordinary least squares and logistic regression methods. Findings – The results show that acquisition of client knowledge through the wide number of digital channels, assimilation of such knowledge boosted by its codification through a digital customer relationship management (CRM) system and application of client knowledge across different functional areas are positively associated with both product and business process innovations in KIBS. Originality/value – The paper proposes that KIBS should develop and sustain the strong internal capacity to absorb knowledge through routine day-to-day client interactions as a part of their knowledge management systems. The results also indicate that application of digital communication tools and CRM systems are beneficial for KIBS and increases their propensity to innovate.
This article explores the relationship of crisis to the professional practice of interpreting. Applying a practice theory approach, it illustrates interpreters' sense‐making efforts and strategic adjustments to crisis as an intrinsic part of their work. Leveraging upon the concepts of consciousness‐mediated, accompanied adjustment and teleoaffectivity as ends, goals and emotions of life conditions, the article argues that we can identify core meanings around “crisis” in the interpreting practice. These meanings are linked to the calibrations that interpreters carry out to achieve professional aims of success and avoid failure. Drawing upon an ethnographic study of interpreting in the United Kingdom, the article finds that interpreters act to provide effective communication services through the orderly display of professional conduct, in turn steering away from the negative publicness that failing in front of users brings upon them. The study reveals that crisis is embedded into interpreters' professional engagements, with their activities equally organised toward the avoidance of negative ends and emotions and the achievement of successful goals, as a precondition for smooth work and positive reputation. Thus, crisis in this practice is linked to specific understandings and enactments of teleoaffectivity, as interpreters adjust to crisis by acting in purposeful ways (‐teleo) steered by accompanying emotional states (‐affect). This article contributes to social practice literature by attending to these nuances of crisis, seeing them as bound up with the purposeful, motivational, and affective adjustments associated with practising interpreting.
This data book presents the results of statistical surveys characterising innovation processes in the economy of the country. The methodology for the formation of the main indicators is based on the latest recommendations of international organizations in the field of statistical measurement of innovation (the 4th edition of the Oslo Manual) and the Unified Program of Innovation Surveys in the EU countries.
The book contains statistical data reflecting the state and prospects of innovation activity of enterprises, the development of product and process innovations, resource provision and the effectiveness of innovation activities, including the level of novelty and sales markets, the implementation of innovative products by order of users, are presented.
The publication also includes indicators of the intensity of cooperative relations with external and internal partners, characteristics and forms of open innovation, and assessments of factors that deter innovation. Separate chapters of the collection are devoted to the characteristics of innovation activity in the regions of the Russian Federation, environmental innovations and international comparisons covering a wide range of indicators.
The data book includes information of the Federal State Statistics Service, the OECD, the European Commission, Eurostat, National Statistical Agencies of foreign countries, as well as in-house methodological and analytical studies conducted at Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge at National Research University Higher School of Economics.
This data book is another publication in the series describing various aspects of scientific development in the Russian Federation. It begins with the tables, where main science and technology indicators are provided alongside the data concerning basic innovative activities. The publication presents statistical data on R&D organisations, personnel, and funding, as well as on material and technical facilities of the Russian science. In some sections, it contains information about intellectual property, commercialisation and usage of technologies, and international comparisons.
The data book includes information of the Federal State Statistics Service, Russian Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Russian Federal Service for Intellectual Property, CIS Interstate Statistical Committee, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), European Commission, Eurostat, UNESCO, World Intellectual Property Organisation, and results of own methodological and analytical studies of the HSE Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge.
This report presented by the Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge of the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE ISSEK) is dedicated to the statistical measurement of the creative economy of Moscow.
This publication gives a first ever classification of Moscow’s creative industries – sectors of the economy where the major part of gross value added is generated out of creative activity and intellectual property rights management, and provides a description of approaches to calculating key indicators of their economic and territorial development. Original assessments of creative employment and foreign trade of creative goods on the basis of official data sources, as well as infographic profiles of selected creative industries, are provided.
The report will be of practical interest to representatives of public authorities, managers and employees of companies, educational institutions, research institutes, experts and all involved in the creative economy agenda.
Banks now are facing strong competition from both technological giants and small fintech startups. Under these conditions, banks also have started to implement disruptive technologies in their day-to-day operations. However, in some cases huge investments in different technological systems do not lead to the increase in company performance due to the resistance of employees. In this paper, we focus on both internal and external factors that may influence employees’ labor productivity and performance of the whole company. The sample includes 148 employees with education in banking and finance. The model was estimated based on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS SEM). It was shown that both motivation to use disruptive technologies and digital skills have a strong impact of labor productivity, while both labor productivity and organisational support positively contribute to the improvement of company performance that is based on usage of new technologies.
Recent studies have substantially enhanced our understanding of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in entrepreneurship—articulating the theoretical relevance of ADHD-type traits in entrepreneurship and confirming the positive linkages between ADHD symptoms/diagnosis and entrepreneurial intentions and behavior. However, how and why some people with ADHD symptoms run successful ventures, while other entrepreneurs fail to perform well, is still not well established. Our study builds on a Gestalt perspective that integrates person–environment fit and broaden-and-build theorizing, and proposes that strong positive emotions enable entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms (at the subclinical level) to mitigate/reinforce the effect of ADHD’s trait-specific weaknesses/strengths to achieve entrepreneurial performance. Relying on fuzzy-set methodology, our findings indicate that for entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms, entrepreneurial performance occurs when they simultaneously experience passion for founding and developing. This passion configuration is unique to successful ADHD-type entrepreneurs. As such, this study offers novel theoretical and empirical insights as well as implications for practitioners.
Plain English Summary Do people with ADHD perform well in entrepreneurship? Our research shows how ADHD symptoms relate to entrepreneurial performance finding that passion is important. Entrepreneurs who are highly and thereby ambidextrously passionate for growing their businesses and for founding activities while lacking intense positive feelings for coming up with new ideas can benefit from ADHD. These results are important for people with ADHD and their loved ones.
The tobacco industry worldwide has annual revenues of hundreds of billions of dollars, and annual smoking-associated death rates in the millions. Electronic cigarettes designed as a less harmful alternative to traditional tobacco products allow users to inhale nicotine, without consuming the products of burning tobacco, thus significantly lowering health risks. These and similar innovative solutions have a potentially disruptive impact on existing markets. Both newcomers and established cigarette firms have been active around these alternatives. However, the health implications of such products are still poorly studied and seemingly ambiguous. Moreover, there is an increasing number of reports on mass diseases associated with vaping. As a result, most countries and international institutions, including the World Health Organization, have adopted negative attitudes towards electronic cigarettes.Do e-cigarettes represent a Trojan Horse that will undermine tobacco control efforts – or are they an effective way to wean users away from cigarettes thus opening the way towards better future? This paper outlines estimates of the future health impacts of cigarette and e-cigarette use, and considers the broader issues surrounding this potentially disruptive innovation. It points to areas requiring further research and suggests how Foresight studies might address the topic.